Tuesday, June 23, 2020

How Majoring In Math Will Change The Way You See The World

There is a humorous, misguided stigma associated with math. Just the mere utterance of the word â€Å"math† conjures up, for many, the image of intimidating, arcane equations strewn about blackboards and calculators gone on the fritz. For many, math was a painful experience in grade school (and beyond) -- myself included! In fact, I did not become interested in pursuing a math major until my sophomore year of college. The purpose of this post is not to philosophize on the state of mathematics curriculum in America’s schools, but rather, to explain how I eventually saw meaning beneath the seemingly endless exercises. Initially, I had planned on studying biology, in particular, genetic engineering. It always intrigued me how our entire being and makeup was largely determined by a sequence of A’s, T’s, C’s, and G’s. Many of my summers were spent playing with the genomics of glow-in-the-dark zebrafish. I became accustomed to testing hypotheses which rang either true or false within a confidence interval. What I mean by this is that the truth of my ideas and notions were never 100% certain. Arriving at answers that were â€Å"probably† correct never sat well with me. However, during my sophomore year I enrolled in an honors calculus course which offered an alternative to this paradigm. The class introduced the notion of â€Å"proofs.† Theorems and propositions in mathematics are built up from a chain of logical deductions, known as proofs, which result in conclusions that are simply true. Math is built up from a set of initial assumptions about the world we a ssume to be true, and from them we create and discover complex results. The method by which we establish our answers live within an airtight vacuum with no room for uncertainty. This was a gripping concept to me which quickly developed into a passion for the field of mathematics. Given my limited exposure to proof and logic in mathematics, my first few semesters taking higher level courses were challenging. However, my professors were inspiring and supportive and this drove me to continue exploring the field. Initially, I saw mathematics simply as a series of methods used to solve rote and laborious problems, but as my education progressed, I was able to discover its broader applications. I encountered theorems and formulae which could describe phenomena ranging from the movement of financial markets (Black-Scholes equation) to the movement of water (Navier-Stokes equations). Much to my delight, things came full circle with my lingering interest in biology when I encountered a set of equations which could predict predator-prey dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations). Suddenly the â€Å"vacuum† within which mathematical theory existed extended to encompass the world around me. To see ideas which are proven on paper manifest themselves in reality is simultaneously daunting and exciting. Through research, I have been fortunate enough to contribute original theorems of my own. Using my coursework as a means to create novel ideas gave new meaning to my studies. I imagine for many, math may seem esoteric, and my goal as a tutor is to help eliminate this stereotype. As someone who wasn’t interested in mathematics until college, I am glad I chose to explore this field, and hope to share this enthusiasm with the students I teach. Are you interested in getting paired with a tutor to help you with your middle school, high school, or college mathematics coursework? ; Want to read more from some of our mathematics tutors? Tips for Getting a Perfect Score on a Standardized Math Test Solving The â€Å"I’m Not Good At Math† Problem

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Symbolism, Imagery, and Theme of The Road Not Taken by...

Symbolism, Imagery, and Theme of The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost How can an author effectively convey a universal message to the broadest audience possible? Simple. The author must simply create a completely impartial narrator, devoid of sex, status, or age. The Road Not Taken is a poem told by an impartial narrator who has come to a crossroads in his/her life. The crossroads is represented by a forked path that leads through a forest. The setting is also impartial; the forest is anytime and anywhere the reader desires it to be. The narrator is forced to make a life-decision, thus changing the course of his/her life forever. Symbolism and imagery are used effectively to reinforce the main theme of the poem. One†¦show more content†¦His choice will make changes in his life that he will not be able to take back and he will never again be at that same starting point. The last use of symbolism in the poem is Two roads diverged in a wood, and I - / I took the one less traveled by, / And that has made all the difference. These lines say to me that the writer has led a satisfying life. That he did chose wisely and although it wasnt necessarily an easy life, it was fulfilling for him and he is proud of the choices he made. Imagery was also used in the poem. I found that the yellow in the first line represented that the future the writer was facing was bright and warm regardless of his choice. The undergrowth was, as undergrowth in any forest, damp and dank smelling, but not necessarily unpleasant, just something that the writer would have to face. The image of traveling through a forest also brings to mind thoughts of birds in flight, chirping and singing. Squirrels dashing through trees, rustling leaves and dropping the occasional acorn or nut also create an image of sight and sound. The sun reflecting through the trees, casting shadows and creating pockets of warm and cool air and the occasional breeze stirring through the trees are also brought to mind by this poem. The end of the poem brings to meShow MoreRelatedCritical Analysis Of Robert Frosts The Road Not Taken1257 Words   |  6 Pages Critical Analysis on â€Å"The Road Not Taken† Why is it so common for people to regret the path they have chosen in life? Robert Frost attempts to answer this question throughout the poem by using many literary devices. In other terms, the poet is alluding to a lesson in everyones life; Once a path is being determined, it is inevitable to change the choices because they are in the past. The poet uses imagery to create a visual picture in the readers head of two paths in the woods with the freedomRead MoreThe Road Not Taken By Robert Frost908 Words   |  4 PagesRobert Frost was born March 26, 1874 at San Francisco, California and died January 29, 1963 at Boston, Massachusetts. Frost was an educator and poet. He is widely known for his poetry; some of Frost’s famous work includes The Road Not Taken, Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening, Mending Wall, and Out, Out─. Out, Out─ tells a story of a young boy cutting wood to help provide for his family. He then acquires an injury on his hand by the saw. The boy e nds up dying due to the severity of his wound. HisRead MoreThe Road Not Taken1084 Words   |  5 PagesWoods English 102 CHA 8 November 2010 The Road Not Taken The poem â€Å"The Road Not Taken† by Robert Frost describes the dilemma in decision making, generally in life each individual has countless decisions to make and those decisions lead to new challenges, dilemmas and opportunities. In Frost’s poem, the careful traveler observes the differences of each path, one is bent and covered in undergrowth (Frost 5) and the other is grassy and unworn (Frost 8). In the end he knows he can only choose oneRead MoreEssay about An Analysis Of Nature In The W606 Words   |  3 Pages An Analysis of Nature in the works of Robert Frost When reading poetry by Robert Frost the theme of nature is strongly present and persistent. Robert Frost uses the world around him to create a mystic feeling to his writings, almost giving the reader a sense of nostalgia. The influence of nature in Frost’s works creates a palette to paint a picture filled with symbolism for the reader to interpret. The nature in the poems makes the poem an intimate piece in which most readers can identify withRead MoreThemes Of Consonance In The Road Not Taken By Robert Frost891 Words   |  4 PagesThe Road not taken is a poem by Robert Frost was first written in 1916 and it is one of the most famous pieces of American literature. â€Å"It was published in 1978 it has also sold more than seven million copies in the United States and Canada.† (Orr). â€Å"â€Å"The Road Not Taken,† plays a unique role not simply in American literature, but in American culture —and in world culture as well. Its signature phrases have become so ubiquitous, so much a part of everything from coffee mugs to refrigerator magnetsRead MoreThe Road Not Taken Analysis987 Words   |  4 PagesThe Road Not Taken Analysis The Road Not Taken is a poem written by Robert Frost. This poem is a great candidate to be one of the world s best and this analysis will unveil why it is so. The poetic devices used in the poem bring forth its deeper meaning which ultimately resonates with the reader s emotions. However not only this poem is great because of the literary experience it gives but it is also beautiful on a simple structural level. First lets look at the structural aspectRead MoreRoad Not Taken752 Words   |  4 Pageslife-altering decision. In â€Å"The Road Not Taken† by Robert Frost there are many metrical devices used to portray the poet’s major theme of decision making. Outline for â€Å"The Road Not Taken† I. Introduction A. Influence of decision making B. Problem faced by the character II. Body A. Theme of decision making B. Setting (1) Why is this symbolic? C. Title (1) What is the significance? D. Metrical devices used (1) Onomatopoeia (2) Imagery (3) Symbolism (4) Personification Read MoreThe Road Not Taken By Robert Frost1075 Words   |  5 Pagesdeposition. The Road Not Taken, is a poem published in the early 1950’s by Robert Frost. The poem is summarized into the decision one has to make in life, when approached with a cross road. While Frost might have just been lucky with his words, his choices allows readers to stimulate their mind into thinking. Frost relies on the structure of, The Road Not Taken, as well as diction and imagery to reach his audience. Breaking down, The Road Not Taken,the message that Frost tries to get acrossRead MoreRobert Frost Research Paper2986 Words   |  12 Pagesexperiences. Robert Frost is well known for using different themes to teach morals in his poems. He uses imagery, emotions, different views, symbolism, and ever nature, to help create an image in one’s mind. The morals that these different types of themes create will make the reader face decisions and consequences as if they were in the poem themselves. His morals can be found in the poems, â€Å"The Road Not Taken,† â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay,† â€Å"Out, Out,† and â€Å"Acquainted with the Night.† Robert Frost’s poetryRead MoreThe Road Not Taken, by Robert Frost Essay729 Words   |  3 Pagespoem, â€Å"The Road Not Taken†, the author Robert Frost employs several different types of poetic methods throughout his poem. Such methods as symbolism, imaginary, connotation, and tone are uniquely util ized to express the overall theme of the poem. These methods make this poem emotional and complex. In addition, the author is actually focusing on himself. The title â€Å"The Road Not Taken† is emphasizing the word â€Å"Not† more so than the other words. The author is probably focusing on the road or path

Monday, May 18, 2020

Biography of Anne Neville, Queen of Richard III

Anne Neville (June 11, 1456—March 16, 1485) was first married to the young Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales and son of Henry VII, and later became the wife of Richard of Gloucester (Richard III) and thus Queen of England. She was a key figure, if more or less a pawn, in the Wars of the Roses. Fast Facts: Anne Neville Known For: Wife of Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VI; wife of Richard of Gloucester; when Richard became King as Richard III, Anne became Queen of EnglandBorn: June 11, 1456 at Warwick Castle in London, EnglandParents: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and his wife Anne BeauchampDied: March 16, 1485 in London, EnglandSpouse(s): Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VI (m. 1470–1471); Richard, Duke of Gloucester, later Richard III, brother of Edward IV (m. 1472—1485)Children: Edward, Prince of Wales (c. 1473–1484) Early Life Anne Neville was born June 11, 1456, at Warwick Castle in London, England, and likely lived there and in other castles held by her family while she was a child. She did attend various formal celebrations, including the feast celebrating the marriage of Margaret of York in 1468.   Annes father  Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, was called the Kingmaker for his shifting and influential roles in the Wars of the Roses.  He was a nephew of the  Duke of Yorks  wife, Cecily Neville, mother of Edward IV and Richard III. He came into considerable property and wealth when he married  Anne Beauchamp. They had no sons, only two daughters, of whom Anne Neville was the younger, and Isabel (1451–1476) the elder.  These daughters would inherit a fortune, and thus their marriages were especially important in the royal marriage game. Anne as Goods for Alliances In 1460, Annes father  and his uncle, Edward, Duke of York and Earl of March, defeated Henry VI at Northampton. In 1461, Edward was proclaimed King of England as Edward IV. Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in 1464, surprising Warwick, who had plans for a more advantageous marriage for him. By 1469, Warwick had turned against Edward IV and the Yorkists and joined the Lancastrian cause promoting the return of Henry VI. Henrys queen, Margaret of Anjou, was heading the Lancastrian effort from France. Warwick married his older daughter, Isabel, to George, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Edward IV, while the parties were in Calais, France.  Clarence switched from the York to the Lancaster party. Edward, Prince of Wales The next year, Warwick, apparently to convince Margaret of Anjou that he was trustworthy (because he had originally sided with Edward IV in unseating Henry VI), married his daughter Anne to Henry VIs son and heir apparent, Edward of Westminster. The marriage was held in Bayeux in mid-December of 1470. Warwick, Edward of Westminster accompanied Queen Margaret as she and her army invaded England, Edward IV fled to Burgundy. Annes marriage to Edward of Westminster convinced Clarence that Warwick had no intention to promote his kingship. Clarence switched sides and rejoined his Yorkist brothers. York Victories, Lancastrian Losses On April 14, 1471 at the Battle of Barnet, the Yorkist party was victorious, and Annes father, Warwick, and a brother of Warwick, John Neville, were among those killed. Then on May 4, in the Battle of Tewkesbury, the Yorkists won another decisive victory over Margaret of Anjous forces, and Annes young husband, Edward of Westminster, was killed either during the battle or shortly after. With his heir dead, the Yorkists had Henry VI killed days later.  Edward IV, now victorious and restored, imprisoned Anne, widow of Edward of Westminster and no longer Princess of Wales.  Clarence took custody of Anne and her mother. Richard of Gloucester When siding with the Yorkists earlier, Warwick, in addition to marrying his older daughter, Isabel Neville, to George, Duke of Clarence, had been trying to marry his younger daughter Anne to Edward IVs youngest brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Anne and Richard were first cousins once removed, as were George and Isabel, all descended from Ralph de Neville and Joan Beaufort. (Joan was the legitimized daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford.)   Clarence tried to prevent the marriage of his wifes sister to his brother. Edward IV also opposed the marriage of Anne and Richard.  Because  Warwick had no sons, his valuable lands and titles would go to his daughters husbands at his death. Clarences motivation likely was that he didnt want to divide his wifes inheritance with his brother. Clarence attempted to take Anne in as his ward in order to control her inheritance. But under circumstances that are not fully known to history, Anne escaped Clarences control and she took sanctuary at a church in London, probably with Richards organization. It took two acts of parliament to set aside the rights of Anne Beauchamp, mother of Anne and Isabel, and a cousin, George Neville, and to divide the estate between Anne Neville and Isabel Neville. Anne, who had been widowed in May of 1471, married Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV, perhaps in March or July of 1472.  He then claimed Annes inheritance.  The date of their marriage is not certain, and there is no evidence of a papal dispensation for such close relatives to marry.  A son, Edward, was born in 1473 or 1476, and a second son, who did not live long, may have been born as well. Annes sister Isabel died in 1476, shortly after her birth of a short-lived fourth child. George, Duke of Clarence, was executed in 1478 for plotting against Edward IV; Isabel had died in 1476. Anne Neville took charge of raising the children of Isabel and Clarence.  Their daughter, Margaret Pole, was executed much later, in 1541, by Henry VIII. The Young Princes Edward IV died in 1483. On his death, his minor son Edward became Edward V. But the young prince was never crowned. He was put into the charge of his uncle, Annes husband, Richard of Gloucester, as Protector. Prince Edward and, later, his younger brother were taken to the Tower of London, where they disappeared from history. Its presumed that they were killed, although its not clear when. Stories have long circulated that Richard III was responsible for the deaths of his nephews, the Princes in the Tower, to remove rival claimants for the crown. Henry VII, Richards successor, also had motive and, if the princes survived Richards reign, would have had the opportunity to have them killed. A few have pointed at Anne Neville herself as having the motivation to order the deaths. Heirs to the Throne While the princes were still being held under Richards control. Richard had his brothers marriage to Elizabeth Woodville declared invalid and his brothers children declared illegitimate on June 25, 1483, thereby inheriting the crown himself as the legitimate male heir. Anne was crowned as Queen and their son Edward was made Prince of Wales. But Edward died on April 9, 1484; Richard adopted Edward, Earl of Warwick, son of his sister, as his heir, probably at Annes request. Anne may have been unable to bear another child due to her ill health. Annes Death Anne, who reportedly was never very healthy, fell ill in early 1485 and died on March 16. Buried in Westminster Abbey, her grave was unmarked until 1960. Richard quickly named a different heir to the throne, his sister Elizabeths adult son, the Earl of Lincoln. With Annes death, Richard was rumored to be plotting to marry his niece, Elizabeth of York, to secure a stronger claim to the succession. Stories soon circulated that Richard had poisoned Anne to get her out of the way. If that was his plan, he was foiled. Richard IIIs reign ended on August 22, 1485, when he was defeated by Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth. Henry was crowned Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, bringing to an end the Wars of the Roses. Edward, Earl of Warwick, the son of Annes sister and Richards brother whom Richard adopted as heir, was imprisoned in the Tower of London by Richards successor, Henry VII, and executed after he attempted to escape in 1499. Annes possessions included a book of the  Visions of St. Matilda  which she had signed as Anne Warrewyk. Fictional Representations Shakespeare: In Richard III, Anne appears early in the play with the body of her father-in-law, Henry VI; she blames Richard for his death and that of her husband, the Prince of Wales, son on Henry VI. Richard charms Anne, and, though she also loathes him, she marries him. Richard early reveals that he does not intend to keep her long, and Anne is suspicious that he intends to kill her. She conveniently disappears as Richard begins a plan to marry his niece, Elizabeth of York. Shakespeare takes considerable creative license with history in his story of Anne. The time of the play is much compressed, and motives are likely also exaggerated or changed for literary effect. In the historical timeline, Henry VI and his son, Annes first husband, were killed in 1471; Anne married Richard in 1472; Richard III took power in 1483 soon after his brother, Edward IV, died suddenly, and Richard ruled for two years, dying in 1485. The White Queen: Anne Neville was a major character in the 2013 miniseries The White Queen, which was based on the novel of the same name (2009) by Philippa Gregory. Recent fictional representation: Anne was the subject of  The Rose of York: Love War by Sandra Worth, a 2003 work of historical fiction. Another Anne Neville A much later Anne Neville (1606–1689) was a daughter of Sir Henry Neville and Lady Mary Sackville.  Her mother, a Catholic, influenced her to join the Benedictines. She was abbess at Pointoise. Sources Gregory, Phillippa. The White Queen: A Novel. New York: Touchstone, 2009.  Hicks, Michael. Anne Neville: Queen to Richard III. Gloucestershire: The History Press, 2011.  Licence, Amy. Anne Neville: Richard IIIs Tragic Queen. Gloucestershire: Amberley Publishing, 2013.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Drug War Of America - 1407 Words

The drug war in America has shaped our society into what we know it as today, the war has so far been a failure where hundreds of millions of dollars, workforce, and policies have only served to maintain the same rates of usage as those in the 1970’s. When the drugs hit America, they hit hard. Overwhelmed by drugs showing up in almost every town, America decided to declare war. Drugs first surfaced in the late 1880’s with Opium. Opium at the time was the most in demand drug choice. Opium comes from a flower called, â€Å"Opium Poppy†, people would take the â€Å"fruit† of the flower, which was the actual opium and let it dry up and then it was either; smoked, injected, eaten or put in drinks. When the drug effects kicks it the user would start†¦show more content†¦Cocaine was cheaper and easier to use, people would find new ways to use it everyday, they would lace everything with it; cookies, brownies, and cigarettes. Most people who used the drug would crush up it up into a fine powder, sort it in small lines, rolled up a five dollar bill, and snort the powder through the bill into their noses to make the high start faster and get the drug straight into their blood system. The outbreak really affected the jail system. People started smuggling the drug in everything; secret underground tunnel systems, beds, pillows, shoes, food trays, and even through the prison guard. Many prisoners’ lives were taken in prison for the drugs they were smuggling in and who they were smuggling in the drugs for. Major smugglers were Al Capone, Pablo Escobar, and Joaquà ­n Guzmà ¡n. Multimillion dollars worth of drugs went through them and into the country’s streets. People got so addicted to cocaine, it would cause fights in the streets, schools, prisons, and in public. People started killing people for cocaine, join mobs just to get the drug, and start leaving their families and responsibilities behind for the drugs, breaking the order of society. When the drugs broke out in the communities, it started the wave of gangs and unnecessary violence. Drugs not only affected the user but everyone around them. Society took a hard hit when drugs came into the

Chapter 4 Back to the Burrow Free Essays

By twelve o’clock the next day, Harry’s school trunk was packed with his school things and all his most prized possessions – the Invisibility Cloak he had inherited from his father, the broomstick he had gotten from Sirius, the enchanted map of Hogwarts he had been given by Fred and George Weasley last year. He had emptied his hiding place under the loose floorboard of all food, double-checked every nook and cranny of his bedroom for forgotten spellbooks or quills, and taken down the chart on the wall counting down the days to September the first, on which he liked to cross off the days remaining until his return to Hogwarts. The atmosphere inside number four, Privet Drive was extremely tense. We will write a custom essay sample on Chapter 4 Back to the Burrow or any similar topic only for you Order Now The imminent arrival at their house of an assortment of wizards was making the Dursleys uptight and irritable. Uncle Vernon had looked downright alarmed when Harry informed him that the Weasleys would be arriving at five o’clock the very next day. â€Å"I hope you told them to dress properly, these people,† he snarled at once. â€Å"I’ve seen the sort of stuff your lot wear. They’d better have the decency to put on normal clothes, that’s all.† Harry felt a slight sense of foreboding. He had rarely seen Mr. or Mrs. Weasley wearing anything that the Dursleys would call â€Å"normal.† Their children might don Muggle clothing during the holidays, but Mr. and Mrs. Weasley usually wore long robes in varying states of shabbiness. Harry wasn’t bothered about what the neighbors would think, but he was anxious about how rude the Dursleys might be to the Weasleys if they turned up looking like their worst idea of wizards. Uncle Vernon had put on his best suit. To some people, this might have looked like a gesture of welcome, but Harry knew it was because Uncle Vernon wanted to look impressive and intimidating. Dudley, on the other hand, looked somehow diminished. This was not because the diet was at last taking effect, but due to fright. Dudley had emerged from his last encounter with a fully grown wizard with a curly pig’s tail poking out of the seat of his trousers, and Aunt Petunia and Uncle Vernon had had to pay for its removal at a private hospital in London. It wasn’t altogether surprising, therefore, that Dudley kept running his hand nervously over his backside, and walking sideways from room to room, so as not to present the same target to the enemy. Lunch was an almost silent meal. Dudley didn’t even protest at the food (cottage cheese and grated celery). Aunt Petunia wasn’t, eating anything at all. Her arms were folded, her lips were pursed, and she seemed to be chewing her tongue, as though biting back the furious diatribe she longed to throw at Harry. â€Å"They’ll be driving, of course?† Uncle Vernon barked across the table. â€Å"Er,† said Harry. He hadn’t thought of that. How were the Weasleys going to pick him up? They didn’t have a car anymore; the old Ford Anglia they had once owned was currently running wild in the Forbidden Forest at Hogwarts. But Mr. Weasley had borrowed a Ministry of Magic car last year; possibly he would do the same today? â€Å"I think so,† said Harry. Uncle Vernon snorted into his mustache. Normally, Uncle Vernon would have asked what car Mr. Weasley drove; he tended to judge other men by how big and expensive their cars were. But Harry doubted whether Uncle Vernon would have taken to Mr. Weasley even if he drove a Ferrari. Harry spent most of the afternoon in his bedroom; he couldn’t stand watching Aunt Petunia peer out through the net curtains every few seconds, as though there had been a warning about an escaped rhinoceros. Finally, at a quarter to five, Harry went back downstairs and into the living room. Aunt Petunia was compulsively straightening cushions. Uncle Vernon was pretending to read the paper, but his tiny eyes were not moving, and Harry was sure he was really listening with all his might for the sound of an approaching car. Dudley was crammed into an armchair, his porky hands beneath him, clamped firmly around his bottom. Harry couldn’t take the tension; he left the room and went and sat on the stairs in the hall, his eyes on his watch and his heart pumping fast from excitement and nerves. But five o’clock came and then went. Uncle Vernon, perspiring slightly in his suit, opened the front door, peered up and down the street, then withdrew his head quickly. â€Å"They’re late!† he snarled at Harry. â€Å"I know,† said Harry. â€Å"Maybe – er – the traffic’s bad, or something.† Ten past five†¦then a quarter past five†¦Harry was starting to feel anxious himself now. At half past, he heard Uncle Vernon and Aunt Petunia conversing in terse mutters in the living room. â€Å"No consideration at all.† â€Å"We might’ve had an engagement.† â€Å"Maybe they think they’ll get invited to dinner if they’re late.† â€Å"Well, they most certainly won’t be,† said Uncle Vernon, and Harry heard him stand up and start pacing the living room. â€Å"They’ll take the boy and go, there’ll be no hanging around. That’s if they’re coming at all. Probably mistaken the day. I daresay their kind don’t set much store by punctuality. Either that or they drive some tin-pot car that’s broken d -AAAAAAAARRRRRGH!† Harry jumped up. From the other side of the living room door came the sounds of the three Dursleys scrambling, panic-stricken, across the room. Next moment Dudley came flying into the hall, looking terrified. â€Å"What happened?† said Harry. â€Å"What’s the matter?† But Dudley didn’t seem able to speak. Hands still clamped over his buttocks, he waddled as fast as he could into the kitchen. Harry hurried into the living room. Loud bangings and scrapings were coming from behind the Dursleys’ boarded-up fireplace, which had a fake coal fire plugged in front of it. â€Å"What is it?† gasped Aunt Petunia, who had backed into the wall and was staring, terrified, toward the fire. â€Å"What is it, Vernon?† But they were left in doubt barely a second longer. Voices could be heard from inside the blocked fireplace. â€Å"Ouch! Fred, no – go back, go back, there’s been some kind of mistake – tell George not to – OUCH! George, no, there’s no room, go back quickly and tell Ron -â€Å" â€Å"Maybe Harry can hear us, Dad – maybe he’ll be able to let us out -â€Å" There was a loud hammering of fists on the boards behind the electric fire. â€Å"Harry? Harry, can you hear us?† The Dursleys rounded on Harry like a pair of angry wolverines. â€Å"What is this?† growled Uncle Vernon. â€Å"What’s going on?† â€Å"They – they’ve tried to get here by Floo powder,† said Harry, fighting a mad desire to laugh. â€Å"They can travel by fire – only you’ve blocked the fireplace – hang on -â€Å" He approached the fireplace and called through the boards. â€Å"Mr. Weasley? Can you hear me?† The hammering stopped. Somebody inside the chimney piece said, â€Å"Shh!† â€Å"Mr. Weasley, it’s Harry†¦the fireplace has been blocked up. You won’t be able to get through there.† â€Å"Damn!† said Mr. Weasley’s voice. â€Å"What on earth did they want to block up the fireplace for?† â€Å"They’ve got an electric fire,† Harry explained. â€Å"Really?† said Mr. Weasley’s voice excitedly. â€Å"Eclectic, you say? With a plug? Gracious, I must see that†¦.Let’s think†¦Ouch, Ron!† Ron’s voice now joined the others’. â€Å"What are we doing here? Has something gone wrong?† â€Å"Oh no, Ron,† came Fred’s voice, very sarcastically. â€Å"No, this is exactly where we wanted to end up.† â€Å"Yeah, we’re having the time of our lives here,† said George, whose voice sounded muffled, as though he was squashed against the wall. â€Å"Boys, boys†¦Ã¢â‚¬  said Mr. Weasley vaguely. â€Å"I’m trying to think what to do†¦.Yes†¦only way†¦Stand back, Harry.† Harry retreated to the sofa. Uncle Vernon, however, moved forward. â€Å"Wait a moment!† he bellowed at the fire. â€Å"What exactly are you going to -â€Å" BANG. The electric fire shot across the room as the boarded-up fireplace burst outward, expelling Mr. Weasley, Fred, George, and Ron in a cloud of rubble and loose chippings. Aunt Petunia shrieked and fell backward over the coffee table; Uncle Vernon caught her before she hit the floor, and gaped, speechless, at the Weasleys, all of whom had bright red hair, including Fred and George, who were identical to the last freckle. â€Å"That’s better,† panted Mr. Weasley, brushing dust from his long green robes and straightening his glasses. â€Å"Ah – you must be Harry’s aunt and uncle!† Tall, thin, and balding, he moved toward Uncle Vernon, his hand outstretched, but Uncle Vernon backed away several paces, dragging Aunt Petunia. Words utterly failed Uncle Vernon. His best suit was covered in white dust, which had settled in his hair and mustache and made him look as though he had just aged thirty years. â€Å"Er – yes – sorry about that,† said Mr. Weasley, lowering his hand and looking over his shoulder at the blasted fireplace. â€Å"It’s all my fault. It just didn’t occur to me that we wouldn’t be able to get out at the other end. I had your fireplace connected to the Floo Network, you see – just for an afternoon, you know, so we could get Harry. Muggle fireplaces aren’t supposed to be connected, strictly speaking – but I’ve got a useful contact at the Floo Regulation Panel and he fixed it for me. I can put it right in a jiffy, though, don’t worry. I’ll light a fire to send the boys back, and then I can repair your fireplace before I Disapparate.† Harry was ready to bet that the Dursleys hadn’t understood a single word of this. They were still gaping at Mr. Weasley, thunderstruck. Aunt Petunia staggered upright again and hid behind Uncle Vernon. â€Å"Hello, Harry!† said Mr. Weasley brightly. â€Å"Got your trunk ready?† â€Å"It’s upstairs,† said Harry, grinning back. â€Å"We’ll get it,† said Fred at once. Winking at Harry, he and George left the room. They knew where Harry’s bedroom was, having once rescued him from it in the dead of night. Harry suspected that Fred and George were hoping for a glimpse of Dudley; they had heard a lot about him from Harry. â€Å"Well,† said Mr. Weasley, swinging his arms slightly, while he tried to find words to break the very nasty silence. â€Å"Very – erm – very nice place you’ve got here.† As the usually spotless living room was now covered in dust and bits of brick, this remark didn’t go down too well with the Dursleys. Uncle Vernon’s face purpled once more, and Aunt Petunia started chewing her tongue again. However, they seemed too scared to actually say anything. Mr. Weasley was looking around. He loved everything to do with Muggles. Harry could see him itching to go and examine the television and the video recorder. â€Å"They run off eckeltricity, do they?† he said knowledgeably. â€Å"Ah yes, I can see the plugs. I collect plugs,† he added to Uncle Vernon. â€Å"And batteries. Got a very large collection of batteries. My wife thinks I’m mad, but there you are.† Uncle Vernon clearly thought Mr. Weasley was mad too. He moved ever so slightly to the right, screening Aunt Petunia from view, as though he thought Mr. Weasley might suddenly run at them and attack. Dudley suddenly reappeared in the room. Harry could hear the clunk of his trunk on the stairs, and knew that the sounds had scared Dudley out of the kitchen. Dudley edged along the wall, gazing at Mr. Weasley with terrified eyes, and attempted to conceal himself behind his mother and father. Unfortunately, Uncle Vernon’s bulk, while sufficient to hide bony Aunt Petunia, was nowhere near enough to conceal Dudley. â€Å"Ah, this is your cousin, is it, Harry?† said Mr. Weasley, taking another brave stab at making conversation. â€Å"Yep,† said Harry, â€Å"that’s Dudley.† He and Ron exchanged glances and then quickly looked away from each other; the temptation to burst out laughing was almost overwhelming. Dudley was still clutching his bottom as though afraid it might fall off. Mr. Weasley, however, seemed genuinely concerned at Dudley’s peculiar behavior. Indeed, from the tone of his voice when he next spoke, Harry was quite sure that Mr. Weasley thought Dudley was quite as mad as the Dursleys thought he was, except that Mr. Weasley felt sympathy rather than fear. â€Å"Having a good holiday, Dudley?† he said kindly. Dudley whimpered. Harry saw his hands tighten still harder over his massive backside. Fred and George came back into the room carrying Harry’s school trunk. They glanced around as they entered and spotted Dudley. Their faces cracked into identical evil grins. â€Å"Ah, right,† said Mr. Weasley. â€Å"Better get cracking then.† He pushed up the sleeves of his robes and took out his wand. Harry saw the Dursleys draw back against the wall as one. â€Å"Incendio!† said Mr. Weasley, pointing his wand at the hole in the wall behind him. Flames rose at once in the fireplace, crackling merrily as though they had been burning for hours. Mr. Weasley took a small drawstring bag from his pocket, untied it, took a pinch of the powder inside, and threw it onto the flames, which turned emerald green and roared higher than ever. â€Å"Off you go then, Fred,† said Mr. Weasley. â€Å"Coming,† said Fred. â€Å"Oh no – hang on -â€Å" A bag of sweets had spilled out of Fred’s pocket and the contents were now rolling in every direction – big, fat toffees in brightly colored wrappers. Fred scrambled around, cramming them back into his pocket, then gave the Dursleys a cheery wave, stepped forward, and walked right into the fire, saying â€Å"the Burrow!† Aunt Petunia gave a little shuddering gasp. There was a whooshing sound, and Fred vanished. â€Å"Right then, George,† said Mr. Weasley, â€Å"you and the trunk.† Harry helped George carry the trunk forward into the flames and turn it onto its end so that he could hold it better. Then, with a second whoosh, George had cried â€Å"the Burrow!† and vanished too. â€Å"Ron, you next,† said Mr. Weasley. â€Å"See you,† said Ron brightly to the Dursleys. He grinned broadly at Harry, then stepped into the fire, shouted â€Å"the Burrow!† and disappeared. Now Harry and Mr. Weasley alone remained. â€Å"Well†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢bye then,† Harry said to the Dursleys. They didn’t say anything at all. Harry moved toward the fire, but just as he reached the edge of the hearth, Mr. Weasley put out a hand and held him back. He was looking at the Dursleys in amazement. â€Å"Harry said good-bye to you,† he said. â€Å"Didn’t you hear him?† â€Å"It doesn’t matter,† Harry muttered to Mr. Weasley. â€Å"Honestly, I don’t care.† Mr. Weasley did not remove his hand from Harry’s shoulder. â€Å"You aren’t going to see your nephew till next summer,† he said to Uncle Vernon in mild indignation. â€Å"Surely you’re going to say good-bye?† Uncle Vernon’s face worked furiously. The idea of being taught consideration by a man who had just blasted away half his living room wall seemed to be causing him intense suffering. But Mr. Weasley’s wand was still in his hand, and Uncle Vernon’s tiny eyes darted to it once, before he said, very resentfully, â€Å"Good-bye, then.† â€Å"See you,† said Harry, putting one foot forward into the green flames, which felt pleasantly like warm breath. At that moment, however, a horrible gagging sound erupted behind him, and Aunt Petunia started to scream. Harry wheeled around. Dudley was no longer standing behind his parents. He was kneeling beside the coffee table, and he was gagging and sputtering on a foot-long, purple, slimy thing that was protruding from his mouth. One bewildered second later, Harry realized that the foot-long thing was Dudley’s tongue – and that a brightly colored toffee wrapper lay on the floor before him. Aunt Petunia hurled herself onto the ground beside Dudley, seized the end of his swollen tongue, and attempted to wrench it out of his mouth; unsurprisingly, Dudley yelled and sputtered worse than ever, trying to fight her off. Uncle Vernon was bellowing and waving his arms around, and Mr. Weasley had to shout to make himself heard. â€Å"Not to worry, I can sort him out!† he yelled, advancing on Dudley with his wand outstretched, but Aunt Petunia screamed worse than ever and threw herself on top of Dudley, shielding him from Mr. Weasley. â€Å"No, really!† said Mr. Weasley desperately. â€Å"It’s a simple process it was the toffee – my son Fred – real practical joker – but it’s only an Engorgement Charm – at least, I think it is – please, I can correct it -â€Å" But far from being reassured, the Dursleys became more panic- stricken; Aunt Petunia was sobbing hysterically, tugging Dudley’s tongue as though determined to rip it out; Dudley appeared to be suffocating under the combined pressure of his mother and his tongue; and Uncle Vernon, who had lost control completely, seized a china figure from on top of the sideboard and threw it very hard at Mr. Weasley, who ducked, causing the ornament to shatter in the blasted fireplace. â€Å"Now really!† said Mr. Weasley angrily, brandishing his wand. â€Å"I’m trying to help!† Bellowing like a wounded hippo, Uncle Vernon snatched up another ornament. â€Å"Harry, go! Just go!† Mr. Weasley shouted, his wand on Uncle Vernon. â€Å"I’ll sort this out!† Harry didn’t want to miss the fun, but Uncle Vernon’s second ornament narrowly missed his left ear, and on balance he thought it best to leave the situation to Mr. Weasley. He stepped into the fire, looking over his shoulder as he said â€Å"the Burrow!† His last fleeting glimpse of the living room was of Mr. Weasley blasting a third ornament out of Uncle Vernon’s hand with his wand, Aunt Petunia screaming and lying on top of Dudley, and Dudley’s tongue lolling around like a great slimy python. But next moment Harry had begun to spin very fast, and the Dursleys’ living room was whipped out of sight in a rush of emerald-green flames. How to cite Chapter 4 Back to the Burrow, Essay examples

Constrained Optimization and Distributed Computation †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Constrained Optimization and Distributed Computation. Answer: Introduction: Sustainability is the basic requirements of the organizations these days, this is because of the situation that has been arising in the environment because of excessive use of resources and increasing pollution. This is the report that discusses about the sustainability in the very important function of the organization that is supply chain management. The report analyses the various factors that affect the functioning of supply change management. The report initiates with the discussion of the corporate social responsibility and supply chain management along with the sustainability maintenance of the process by the organisation. The major aim of the report is to analyse the different aspect that can be used to maintain the balance between the environment and the functions of the organization by understanding various concept of CSR in supply chain management. This is the report that deals with analysing the benefits of CSR in the supply chain management and the approaches that compan ies are using in order to integrate the CSR practiced and the supply chain activities in the global supply chain. Supply chain management is the basic function of the organization that allows the company to deliver the products to the market. It is the whole and soul of the product based companies because if the products has been manufactured in the company than it needs to be reached to the market comfortably. Supply chain of any of the company integrates some of the functions such as manufacturing, operations, purchase, transportation, distribution etc. a supply chain system can only be successful if all the above stated activities run seamlessly in the organization. Corporate social responsibility can be simply defined as the practices that are conducted by the businesses in order to return back to the society and play their role in making the society and environment sustainable. This is the topic that has gained special attention these days by the practitioners and the researchers as well. This is because it is required to research about the importance of corporate social responsibility in the various functions of the organizations in order to be sustainability. Stakeholders theory has been suggested in the article that deals with fulfilling all the responsibilities of the stakeholders. The findings of the research suggest that there are three major areas where corporate social responsibility makes its focus that are customers satisfaction, financial performance and motivation of the employees. In earlier times, the managers and the owners have the perception that the business of business is to do business but the activities of business in these days have changed. Now, the organizations have to face the pressure from the society, stakeholders and the government. Due to all these elements and interference in the businesses corporate social responsibility has got more attention. CSR is now the mandatory strategy for the organizations. Corporate Social Responsibility: Three Key Approaches This is the research that deals with various approaches of corporate social responsibility in the organisations that also involves supply chain: It has been identified that CSR is getting so much of attention of the researchers these days, it has been analysed that it has to face many criticism as well. In terms of criticism, shareholder approach is the one that is facing a lot of issues. As per this theory, the only motive of the organizations should be to earn profits and provide the returns to the shareholders. This theory has been criticized because other stakeholders are not I consideration wit this theory. This leads to development of stakeholder theory. It is the approach that suggests that it is the responsibility of the firm to fulfil the needs and requirements of each and every stakeholders of the company. It is also required by the company to include the opinion so the multiple stakeholders in terms of making any important decision in the company. As per the research, stakeholders are the group of people who are affected by any of the decision or the activity of the company. This theory balances the motive of organizations to achieve economic profits along with satisfaction of the stakeholders. Carroll developed the new approach of corporate social responsibility that includes four elements that are legal, ethical, economic and philanthropic. As per the study or the approach, the social responsibility of the business lies in the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic expectation of the society from the business. As per the above stated theories, activities are considered mandatory for the organizations but this theory suggests that some of the responsibilities of the organization are voluntary that provides better brand image in the market according to their voluntary actions towards the society. It has been analysed from the research findings that stakeholders approach is the theoretical approach that can used by the companies in supply Chain so as to be sustainable and have better CSR concerns. Supply chain management system is the very important system for the companies because of the global competition between the companies operating in different countries. Outsourcing the activities and functions, reducing the product life cycle are some of the aspects of supply chain management. Management is the company are giving attention to supply chain competition all over the world. Developing the relationship with the suppliers and other distributors have become very important and a crucial factor for the companies these days. As the focus of the companies is shifting to supply chain management, it has been analysed that the pressure on being sustainable is also increasing. The corporate social responsibility is the concept that is also integrating with the supply chain management in order to be sustainable. Corporate social responsibility is not limited only to one of the functions of the company but is a very broad concept that relates the company and the society as a whole. It is basically defined as the activities conducted by the companies in order to give back to the society. These activities are considered as the responsibility of the organizations. It is the article or the research that discusses about the corporate group and the pressure of the companies to make their supply chain sustainable and have activities through CSR but it has been analysed that some of the firms does not have the capability to do so and thus imposing such duties on the firms is not correct and ethical. Corporate social responsibility in global supply chains There are two main components that are associated with the CSR of the companies. The first component is the relationship between the company and the society and the second component is related to the activities that need to be conducted for the society by the companies. The research has been conducted on the company like IKEA in order to understand the integration of CSR activities in supply chain of the company. IKEA is the Swedish company that deals with practicing CSR activities in its supply chain managements system as well. The first initiative that the company has initiated was to shift its unction from trading to purchasing. This is the function or the process that deals with purchasing the material from fewer suppliers rather that trading with large number of suppliers. This activity leads to formation of better ad strong relationships with some of the suppliers by the company. For this process, the company selects the suppliers on the basis of the quality of the products and the manufacturing processes. The company puts in all its efforts in developing the suppliers to high level. For better understanding of the CSR is SCM, it is required to analyse the staircase model of the company. IWAY is the operation of IKAE to purchase home furnishing and this is the operation that includes CSR practices by the company. It is the model of the company that includes three step approaches. The first approach or the area that has been discussed in the model is outside environment, the second area is working conditions and the last area is wooden merchandise in case of wooden suppliers. As discussed that there are some conditions to select the suppliers. Some of the conditions are that there should be no child labour, no forced labour and no wood from natural high conservation forests. This is the first level of the model. In order to reach level 2, the suppliers need to fulfil the requirement of the outside environment along with the working conditions. After fulfilling all the requirements the suppliers can reach up to the next level that is level 3. Certification has been given to the suppliers at this level that justifies that the supplier is able to maintain the standards of the environment and policies of the company related to sustainability. At level 4, the suppliers process has been certified ac cording to the standards of IKEA. After understanding and reading this case, it has been analysed that practicing CSR in supply chain management requires the organization to put CSR in all the activities of the company, it should not be treated as the separate function but CSR should be reflected in all the functions of the company just like what IKEA is doing by its supply chain management system. Supply chain and CSR There are different studies that have been conducted in order to integrate the CSR activities and practices in the supply chain management of the company. Study reveals that there is pressure of stakeholders on the companies in order to conduct the CSR practices. The study was conducted on four types of stakeholders that are consumers, regulation, industry and media. At the same time another author reveals that there are some of the issues in implementing the CSR activities in the supply chain management of the company. Author integrates the different disciplines of the company such as supply chain, HRM and social responsibility. This study considers the people or human factors in the integration practice of CSR in the functions of the company. the study reveals about the complex model that is being used by the companies to implement the CSR activities in supply chain. The study was conducted by assistance of decision makers, manufacturers, suppliers, retailers and consumers. This st udy aims at analysing the risk factors at the tie of managing the multiple supply chain at global level. The findings of the research suggest that there are different views of the research regarding CSR in supply chain and thus various practices are conducted by the companies as per their situations and earnings. Corporate social responsibility Enhance performance: It has been analysed that CSR in the supply chain system of the company enhances the performance of the same. This is because as in the case of IKEA, it has been analysed that integrating the corporate social responsibility practices in the SCM system of the company has provide additional benefits in order to manage the relationships with the stakeholders of the company. Retention of the employees: corporate social responsibility integration with the supply chain of the company also helps in retaining the employees, In this also the theory of stakeholders approach of CSR can be implemented because the company with this approach cares for their employees and provide them additional benefits other than the basic salaries. Positive brand image: Brand image is the factor that is very important for the organizations. Inclusion of CSR in the supply chain of the company helps the company to develop its brand image not only in the market and the customers but also among the stakeholders such as suppliers, distributes etc. Better relationship: it has been analysed that CRM in the function so the company also benefits of the firm to maintain the relationship with the suppliers and the buyers, this is because in terms of practicing CSR, the company provide extra benefits to the suppliers and the buyers. It has been analysed from the various studies regarding integration of CSR activities in the supply chain that most of the companies are using the stakeholders approach to facilitate the process. There are three tools that are majorly being used by the companies such as monitoring the supplier performance, supplier requirements and supplier awareness about the corporate social responsibility. It has been identified that it is very much required by the companies to make intelligent decision at the time of selecting the suppliers for their company. This is because only if the suppliers has the knowledge about the CSR activities the only the company can continue with it. If the suppliers of the company are not maintaining the sustainability then it is not possible for the company to maintain the same. As CSR is very much linked with sustainability, the companies have to engage in some of the sustainable practices that helps the environmental and society to be sustainable. It has been analysed that suppliers are the most important part of supply chain movement and thus it is required by the company to implement such strategies in order to have better suppliers so that their practices can automatically become sustainable. It is required by the company to train their suppliers as they have some responsibilities towards their suppliers under the stakeholders approach of corporate social responsibility. It has been suggested that the company also have some role to play towards their supports under CSR and thus they should make efforts in benefiting the suppliers. Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe and the U.S.: Insights from Businesses' Self-Presentations It is the research that deals with the CSR issues and the difference in the actions of the companies at the different locations. It has been analysed in the report that the companies that operates in different locations or countries have different social responsibilities towards their society, this is because the situation at the society are also very different from each other. The findings of the report suggests that the company needs to integrate the CSR in different functions such supply chain, HRN etc. as per the norms as per the situation in the country. This is the reason why multinational companies find it difficult to implement CSR activities as they operate at different locations in different countries. It is the research that discusses about the various aspect of CSR assessment. It has been analysed in the report that assessing the CSR requirements and the activities for the company is very important. It has been analysed from the research that only making investment is some of the social causes is not CSR but it is required by the companies to be sustainable in its practices and should have responsibility towards society in every sense,. Then only the motive of CSR implementation the organizations can be achieved, the whole CSR assessing process needs to be implemented in the organization to demine the target and the KPIs that are used to compare the set targets and the results of CSR activities of the company. Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms It is the study that deals with understands of logistics social responsibility. Logistics is the part of supply chain of the organizations that deals with transportation of the products manufactured. The findings of the research suggests that business ethics, pressure from suppliers, government, laws, regulation etc. are the features that results in implementation of CSR at the supply chain or other functions of the company. As far as the theoretical implication of the study is confided, it has been analysed that it is Multifoods in nature. This is because the research findings provide the impact of various key factors in the logistical social responsibility. Supply chain management system is very important for the organizations. Companies have realised that engaging into the market faster requires the company to have better supply chain management system. This is because of the company has faster supply chain management; it provides the benefit to the company to be in the market for longer time then the competitors. It helps the company to cater the market faster and also to attain the competitive advantage in terms of supplying the products to the market before the competitors. The extensive review research suggest that most of the researchers have also researched about the issues that the companies are facing in terms of integrating the CSR activities in the supply chain management practices. After analysing the overall situation, it has been analysed that supply chain management system of the companies is the type function that needs to be linked with the CSR activities so as to make the sustainable approach towards the society. Suppl iers are plying major role in this whole process because they are the most relevant stakeholders in terms of supply chain. Conclusion: It has been concluded from the report that supply chain management is the function of the organization that is required to be sustainable. This is because; it is the function that generates very much pollution in the environment as using more of the resources. It has been analysed that integration of CSR is the very difficult approach to be conducted but because of the external pressure of the stakeholders, the companies have to implement the strategy that supports the companies to pay back to the society. The findings from the literature review suggest that organizations are under the pressure of the stakeholders to integrate CSR in supply chain practices. This is because the companies have to make better relationship with the stakeholders and thus they have to fulfil the extra requirements of those stakeholders. After analysing the benefits of CSR in supply chain suggest that it reduces the work and enhances the profit generation capability the company as it uses sustainable practi ces. It also provides opportunity to have better brand image in the market as CSR activities conducted by the organizations are always in the favour of the society. This is the report that has considered CSR as the most important concept to be involved in the functioning of the companies. It is not only the supply chain management functions that can be associated with the CSR activities but the functions like Human resource and marketing are also under this list. As far as the future implications of the finding are considered, it has been analysed that the finding can be implied to have better understanding of the CSR activities under supply chain. The organisation can have the idea about the benefits they can achieve in order to integrate CSR in the supply chain management activities of the company. The research findings can also be used to develop the strategies in order to have better relationship with the suppliers and other stakeholders of the company. References: Amaeshi, K.M., Osuji, O.K. and Nnodim, P., 2008. Corporate social responsibility in supply chains of global brands: A boundaryless responsibility? Clarifications, exceptions and implications.Journal of Business ethics,81(1), pp.223-234. Andersen, M. and Skjoett-Larsen, T., 2009. Corporate social responsibility in global supply chains.Supply chain management: an international journal,14(2), pp.75-86. Andersen, M. and Skjoett-Larsen, T., 2009. Corporate social responsibility in global supply chains.Supply chain management: an international journal,14(2), pp.75-86. Darnall, N., Jolley, G.J. and Handfield, R., 2008. Environmental management systems and green supply chain management: complements for sustainability?.Business strategy and the environment,17(1), pp.30-45. Maignan, I. and Ralston, D.A., 2002. Corporate social responsibility in Europe and the US: Insights from businesses self-presentations.Journal of International Business Studies,33(3), pp.497-514. Morsing, M. and Schultz, M., 2006. Corporate social responsibility communication: stakeholder information, response and involvement strategies.Business Ethics: A European Review,15(4), pp.323-338. Murugesan, P., 2014. Corporate social responsibility in Supply chain management. Seuring, S. and Mller, M., 2008. From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management.Journal of cleaner production,16(15), pp.1699-1710. Weber, M., 2008. The business case for corporate social responsibility: A company-level measurement approach for CSR.European Management Journal,26(4), pp.247-261. Windsor, D., 2006. Corporate social responsibility: Three key approaches.Journal of management studies,43(1), pp.93-114.